[d,52][l,57][m,1][n,1] [s,10]$(this is page i. half-title.)$ [s,3][c]*venezuelan *history[] [i][c]*a *comprehensive *working *bibliography[] [n][s,10]$(this is page ii. leave blank.)$ [n][s,10]$(this is page iii. title page.)$ [s,3][c]*venezuelan *history[] [i][c]*a *comprehensive *working *bibliography[] [s,2][c]*john *v. *lombardi/ / *german *carrera *damas[] [i][c]*roberta *e. *adams[] [s,2][c]*jean *hawkins *coffin/ / *kathy *m. *waldron[] [i][c]*robert *h. *lavenda/ / *robert *j. *ferry[] [i][c]*ralph *f. *van *roy[] [n][s,10]$(this is page iv. copyright page.)$[] [n][s,10]$(this is page v. dedication page.)$[] [s,3][c]*la *bibliografia, no solo es indice cabal e[] [c]irrecusable de la cultura de un pueblo, sino que[] [c]el estado de cada bibliografia nacional indica[] [c]un grado correspondiente de desarrollo[] [c]administrativo, por cuanto da la medida exacta[] [c]del aprecio en que se tienen los esfuerzos[] [c]personales y sociales de que es aquella[] [c]el registro autentico; esfuerzos que determinan[] [c]en su pugna el progreso o la regresion de un pais,[] [c]y cuyo conjunto es la nacion integra, en la[] [c]indiscutible integridad del alma y[] [c]el cuerpo de la patria.[] [s,1][a]*manuel *segundo *sanchez[] [n][s,10]$(this is page vi. leave blank.)$[] [n][s,3]$(this is page vii. table of contents.)$[] [s,3][c]"contents"[] [r,0] [s,4]*preface/ / ix [s,1]*general *reference [i,3]*bibliographies, *guides, [i,3]*historiography, *dictionaries/ / 1 [i]*history [i,3]*general *surveys and *texts/ / 35 [i]*history [i,3]*pre-*independence to 1810/ / 67 [i]*history [i,3]*independence, 1810-1830/ / 106 [i]*history [i,3]*from *paez through the *federal *wars, 1830-1863/ / 144 [i]*history [i,3]*from the *federal *wars [i,3]through the *gomez *regime, 1863-1935/ / 162 [i]*history [i,3]*since 1935/ / 195 [i]*bolivar [i,3]*on, *about, or *by *bolivar/ / 296 [i]*church [i,3]*history, *missionaries, *missions, *religion/ / 325 [i]*civilization [i,3]*literature, *art, *music, [i,3]*journalism, *folklore, *architecture/ / 339 [i]*education [i,3]*universities, *schools, *education in *general/ / 386 [i]*geography [i,3]*maps, *atlases, *regional *surveys/ / 401 [i]*petroleum [i,3]*hydrocarbons, *gas, *oil, [i,3]*economic and *social *consequences/ / 418 [i]*population [i,3]*demography, *immigration, [i,3]*migration, *family, *geneology/ / 431 [i]*urbanization [i,3]*town *foundations, *cities, [i,3]*caracas, *housing, *urbanism/ / 451 [s,1]*author *index/ / 481 [r,1] [n]$(this is page viii. leave blank.)$ [n]"[t, preface]" [s,10] [i]$*introduction$ [i,5]*this working bibliography provides a starting place for the study of *venezuelan history. *as a working bibliography, it does not begin to cover everything ever written about *venezuela/"s past, but it does include over four thousand items that can serve as a beginning. *politics and political history are, of course, heavily represented here, but so also are economics, social history, intellectual and artistic history, and even natural history. *none of these areas of interest are covered exhaustively, but most are represented by a substantial collection of references. *within this broad thematic sweep we included items ranging chronologically from preconquest indigenous societies through the most recent political and social events; from pre-*columbian artifacts through the nationalization of the oil industry. *as a result, if everything ever written about *venezuela is not listed, it should be possible to find out about almost everything ever written about *venezuela through research in the items included. [s,1][i,5]*in a project of this kind it usually proves difficult to establish and maintain rigidly controlled search procedures. *our work was no exception. *the items in this working bibliography came primarily from three different types of sources. *first, of course, were the multiple volumes of the $*library of *congress *catalogs$ of books. *second were the published catalogs of major research collections in the *united *states such as those at the universities of *texas, *california, *tulane, *harvard, *florida; the printed catalog of the *new *york *public *library; and the $*handbook of *latin *american *studies$. *third were a collection of miscellaneous sources% publishers/" catalogs, $*libros en *venta$, private libraries, and citations sent in by our research team in *venezuela. *in general, we took a permissive attitude about including items in the bibliography. *for example, we did not search for items in languages other than *english or *spanish, but when such publications appeared, we included them. *likewise, we emphasized original imprints or reprints published since the *second *world *war and especially those published in the last twenty years. *but when important items occurred with earlier publication dates, we included them. *with very few exceptions, however, every reference was verified in a printed library catalog or similar standard reference, or it was checked against a copy of the item in question. *by casting our net widely we increased the quantity of our catch but with the inevitable consequence of also increasing the quantity of less useful items. *but because one scholar/"s marginalia is another/"s intellectual passion, we made little effort to weed out this collection, except to exclude pamphlets and journal article reprints. [s,1][i,5]*we also included unpublished dissertations completed on *venezuelan topics at *united *states institutions during the last decade. *where the title of a published work differed substantially from the dissertation title, or where there seemed some reason to suspect that the dissertation might differ from a similarly titled publication, we left the dissertation in. *here, as elsewhere, we chose to err on the side of including a superfluous item rather than excluding a useful one. [s,1][i,5]*venezuela/"s government agencies delight in publishing quantities of information in statistical series, in reports, in speeches, and so forth. *but not only does the *venezuelan *central *bank, for example, publish excellent economic data, it also issues a fine series of historical publications frequently unrelated to banking or economics. *and the *national *racetrack *institute has published a series of nineteenth-century traveler/"s accounts. *given this universal interest in history, we included the historically significant editions sponsored by a wide variety of government agencies without attempting a comprehensive listing of the agencies/" other publications. *similarly, we included the major publications resulting from each of *venezuela/"s republican censuses but not every publication derived from the censuses. *thus, the major population counts are here; the detailed industrial and agricultural censuses are not. [s,1][i,5]*given the enormous quantity of *venezuelan history that has been written in periodical articles, we had to limit our search or this list would have been swamped by articles. *because the purpose of this working bibliography is to help guide students to information on *venezuela/"s past, rather than to provide a definitive list, we excluded all articles published in *venezuelan periodicals. *instead, we listed the periodicals themselves and any cumulative indexes that may exist. *other articles on *venezuelan topics, especially those in *english and those published in the *united *states, are listed separately. *we did not uncover all the articles in *english on *venezuelan themes, but through the $*handbook of *latin *american *studies$ and other sources we acquired a significant sample of recent articles. [s,1][i,5]*this working bibliography is organized by broadly defined category and, within category, by principal author and title. *clearly, many works could easily have been included under as many as three or four of these categories, but such a cross-listing procedure would have led to a publication much larger than this one. *we chose, instead, to list each item under the most appropriate category. *this means, for example, that some items referring only in a peripheral way to the period 1863-1935 will not be listed under *history 1863-1935, but possibly under *history 1830-1863, or *history *post-1935. *these categories, then, are broad indications of subject area, not precise thematic classifications. *because many students may want to locate the works of individual authors, there is an index that includes all authors, or titles or institutions listed as authors. [s,2]$*conventions$ [i,5]*we adopted a series of conventions in preparing the entries that are designed to make the list easier to use and more compatible with the computer. [s,1][i,6][j,6]a./ / $*multiple authors$./ / *where a work has a number of authors we listed it under the name of the first author, rather than under the title. [s,1][i,6][j,6]b./ / $*universities$./ / *all publications listed with a university as the author are to be found under the name of the university. *thus, "universidad catolica andres bello" $not$ "caracas. universidad catolica andres bello." *and, "universidad central de venezuela" $not$ "venezuela. universidad central de venezuela." [s,1][i,6][j,6]c./ / $*periodicals$./ / *references to periodicals published in *venezuela and to their cumulative indexes are found under the heading ";venezuela. periodicals.;" in the *general *reference category. [s,1][i,6][j,6]d./ / $*censuses$./ / *because the *venezuelan agency charged with preparing the national censuses has changed names, thus leading to a bewildering array of institutional affiliations, we brought these, and similar statistical series, together under the author heading ";venezuela. statistics.;" within appropriate categories. [s,1][i,6][j,6]e./ / $*cross-references$./ / *where an author has used a pseudonym or where the *library of *congress form of a name differs from accepted *venezuelan practice, there is a cross-reference. *thus, "de armas chitty, jose antonio. see armas chitty, jose antonio de". *the cross-references are included in the index. *in a few cases where standard bibliographic practice would list a work under an institutional heading but most historicans would be inclined to look under a title heading, we listed the item under both headings. [s,1][i,6][j,6]f./ / $*government documents$./ / *we standardized agency and ministry names to conform to current terminology. *for example, government maps and atlases listed under "direccion de cartografia nacional" may have been originally cataloged under "ministerio de obras publicas". *in these cases, the exact title of the issuing agency is preserved in the publication information. [s,1][i,6][j,6]g./ / $*library of *congress form$./ / *wherever possible we made names and bibliographic information conform to *library of *congress standards. [s,1]*these conventions, while appearing complex on paper, should help students make the most efficient use of this working bibliography. *there are, however, other conventions we followed to make this project more easily computer compatible. *the machine, while a boon to bibliographical projects, often imposes its own stylistic requirements. *in our implementation the following conventions proved helpful for fast, efficient computer use. [s,1][i,6][j,6]a./ / $*alphabetizing and sorting$./ / *our computer program and printer admits none of the special characters in the *spanish alphabet such as the $*n$, nor does it recognize the $"ch"$ or the $"ll"$ as single letters. *similarly, there is no provision for diacritics% accents, umlauts, and the like. *the resulting printout is aesthetically displeasing and orthographically inaccurate, but it will have to do. *of the omissions, the most serious is the lack of an $*n$, but once reasonably familiar with the literature, students should have little difficulty reconstituting the missing marks. *all alphabetizing is done letter by letter, blanks and punctuation marks are counted, and the sort sequence is as follows% [a] $"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789 .,()/""$.[] [i,6][j,6]*where there are multiple authors they are separated by an asterisk. *the program alphabetizes the first author $only$ and ignores subsequent authors. *where the first author/"s name is followed by "ed.", or "comp.", the program treats these as part of the author/"s name. [s,1][i,6][j,6]b./ / $*numbering$./ / *each entry has an item number. *the numbers run consecutively from the front of the bibliography and are the principal device for locating references when using the index. [s,1][i,6][j,6]c./ / $*index$./ / *the index includes $all$ author names, whether first or subsequent authors in multi-author works. *but the program truncates the names if they do not fit into the allocated number of spaces. *the numbers following each author/"s name in the index refer to the item numbers, not the page numbers, where that author/"s works can be found. [s,1][i,6][j,6]d./ / $*special characters$./ / *the printer used for this bibliography does not produce the question mark, the quotation mark, and similar special characters. *the question mark and other punctuation such as the semi-colon and the colon have been replaced with periods. *the quotation mark has been replaced with an apostrophe. [s,1][i,5]*for the technically inclined, the bibliography was produced through a slightly modified version of "infol-2", an information retrieval program, on *indiana *university/"s "cdc" 6600 computer. *the *preface was prepared through a locally written text processing program called "instep". *the final bibliography printout was prepared, headlines and page numbers added, and the file renumbered through simple *fortran programs written by *john *v. *lombardi. [s,2][c]* * *[] [s,2][i]$*acknowledgments$ [i,5]*any work of this kind must necessarily depend on the efforts of many individuals and the support of a variety of institutions. *although it would be impossible to list everyone who contributed to this project, some of them can be acknowledged here. [s,1][i,5]*this working bibliography became possible in the first instance through a project entitled *;*the *formation, *structure, and *dynamics of a *primate *city% *a *case *study of *caracas, 1560-1960*; under the joint direction of *john *v. *lombardi /[*department of *history, *indiana *university ("iu")/] and *german *carrera *damas /[*centro de *estudios del *desarrollo ("cendes"), *universidad *central de *venezuela/]. *funded by "cendes" and the *midwest *universities *consortium on *international *activities ("mucia"), the project completed its first phase (1974-1976) in *may of 1976. *this bibliography is one of the project/"s first products and owes its existence to the support supplied from the "mucia" portion of the project budget. *kathy *m. *waldron, *robert *h. *lavenda, *robert *j. *ferry, and *ralph *f. *van *roy, all project researchers in *caracas during the first phase, provided us with invaluable assistance in the compilation of this work. *jean *hawkins *coffin worked closely with the bibliographic search at *indiana *university and provided us with greatly appreciated advice on bibliographic sources and conventions. *most of the search and all of the data preparation took place at the *indiana *university *library and the *i*u *wrubel *computing *center. [s,1][i,5]*roberta *e. *adams did the major portion of the search, prepared the data file, managed the computer files, and in general handled the day-to-day supervision of the project. *without her contribution and expertise there would be no bibliography. *although the bibliography part of the "mucia-cendes" project was managed under my direction at *indiana *university, we benefited greatly from the contributions of our "cendes" project director, *german *carrera *damas, who supervised our activities in *caracas. [s,1][i,5]*in *venezuela, many individuals and institutions cooperated on various aspects of this work. *the *fundacion *john *boulton, through its *director, *manuel *perez *vila, offered us the use of that institution/"s excellent library. *at the *academia *nacional de la *historia, *carlos *felice *cardot, that institution/"s secretary, gave us valuable assistance. *jose *antonio *de *armas *chitty let us inspect his excellent private library. *other institutions providing us with copies of their publications or catalogs were the *sociedad *bolivariana, the *archivo *general de la *nacion, the *presidencia de la *republica, the *biblioteca *nacional, and the *universidad *central de *venezuela, among others. *finally, without the enthusiastic and generous collaboration of *pedro *grases, whose outstanding private library is a *venezuelanist bibliophile/"s mecca, this bibliography would have been significantly less comprehensive and complete than it is. [s,1][i,5]*in the *united *states at *indiana *university we have enjoyed strong support. *george *m. *wilson, *dean of *international *programs and chief liason with "mucia", has encouraged us in this project, helping us survive crises and difficulties. *richard *c. *burke, *director of the "iu" *latin *american *studies *program, gave us his support and lent us the services of his office, especially the excellent managerial skills of the *latin *american *studies *secretary, *judith / / / *lucas. *mary *b. *floyd of the "iu" *history *department provided us with important bibliographical information. *in the "iu" *main *library, *emma *c. *simonson, *latin *american *librarian, patiently answered a never-ending stream of questions. *her good advice and wise counsel greatly improved the final version of this bibliography. *we relied heavily on *jean *nakhnikian of the "iu" *wrubel *computing *center, who maintained and modified the program used for this project. [s,1][i,5]*the assistance, advice, and hard work of these people and institutions, plus the contributions of others too numerous to mention here, made it possible to compile this working bibliography. *without them, we could hardly have begun. [s,2]*john *v. *lombardi [i]*bloomington, *indiana [i]*july 1976 [n][s,10]$(this is page xvi. leave blank.)$